DK全球视觉The Science Of The Ocean海洋科学探秘 悠悠乐英语资源

We manifest an intrinsic fascination with those things on the brink of our knowledge. There’s a romance, a yearning, seemingly a need to wonder about things beyond our reach. Deep space, other planets, aliens … but, as is often cited, we may actually know more about these phenomena than about the inhabitants of our own oceans because 80 per cent of them are unmapped, unobserved, and unexplored for the so very simple reason that this environment is beyond your reach and mine.
We are terrestrial, air- breathing mammals, and while some humans swim well, free dive, or use increasingly sophisticated scuba kit or robots to explore the oceanic unknown, the rest of us “land lubbers” just watch the waves.
Beneath those waves is another world, one that, thanks to science and technology, we are learning a lot more about, a lot more quickly. And, as this fabulous book shows, it is almost incomprehensibly beautiful and fantastic.
From the smallest to the largest, the shallows to the deep, the fierce to the fearful, these organisms share our planet but live in a different dimension. How exciting! So here is an opportunity to meet the neighbours, the “wet ones,” the extraordinary diversity of miraculous life that has evolved in the oceans. And yet, remote as it can seem, the cultural aspects of our relationship with the sea reveal how we have always had a close connection to this charismatic, dangerous, and rewarding realm.
But the tides have turned. Now we are the greater danger, and no drop of our seas is secure. Coral reefs are bleached. Plastic litters the greatest depths and fills the bellies of turtles and whales and chokes albatross chicks.
The acidification of the water, pollution, and overfishing threaten the entire ocean ecosystem.
There has never been a more important time to immerse ourselves in the wonder of the briny world and thus learn to love and protect it. Dive in, swim among stranger things, and then stand up for our oceans.

the marine world

Almost as old as Earth itself,
oceans dominate the planet’s surface. Life first evolved in the oceans, and today they are home to a vast diversity of species. By transporting huge amounts of energy, the oceans also help to power and modify Earth’s climates.

what are oceans?
Earth is a watery world, with 68 per cent of the surface covered by saltwater oceans. Each of the five major ocean basins (the Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, Pacific, and Southern) is a deep depression in Earth’s surface. Connected to the oceans, and typically partly enclosed by land, are numerous smaller seas such as the Mediterranean and Bering seas. Oceans are partially separated by landmasses but are all interconnected.

ocean history
The familiar layout of Earth’s continents and oceans is very different from the way it was in the prehistoric past. Today’s oceans and their seas arose gradually as early landmasses split up and moved apart. Scientific evidence suggests that the original ocean formed from water vapour that escaped from the molten surface of the planet. Around 3.8 billion years ago, conditions cooled and this vapour started to condense and fall as rain.

ocean climates
The world’s oceans and their climates are inextricably linked through a complex web of interactions. The oceans absorb and store heat from the Sun, especially at the equator. From here, wind-driven surface ocean currents circulate water around each of the main ocean basins. In turn, the Sun’s heat and Earth’s rotation set the pattern of prevailing winds. Rainfall is highest in tropical areas, because the oceans are warmest here and so evaporation is high. The oceans slowly release heat, which is why the oceanic climate found around continental coastlines is less extreme than the climate far inland.

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