DK composers thirelives and worksDK作曲家的生活和作品
Around the year 600, the great scholar St. Isidore of Seville lamented that “unless sounds are remembered by man, they perish, for they cannot be written down.”
In fact, the Babylonians and the Ancient Greeks had independently invented systems of musical notation more than a thousand years earlier, but after the decay of their civilizations these methods had been completely forgotten.
This meant that for many centuries, the only way of preserving a musical composition was through a continuous tradition of performance, passing it on from generation to generation.
这意味着许多世纪以来，保存音乐作品的唯一方法是通过持续的表演传统，将其代代相传。 Some of this book’s subjects had lamentably short careers, notably Lili Boulanger, who suffered ill health from infancy and was only 24 when she died.
The deaths of several other composers are known or believed to have been hastened by syphilis (Delius, Donizetti, Schubert, and Smetana among them), and Mussorgsky is perhaps the most famous example of a composer whose life was cut short by alcoholism.
At the opposite extreme are those who ended their days at a ripe age and loaded with honors: Rodrigo and Tippett lived well into their
Guillaume Dufay c.1397–1474, FRENCHThe foremost composer of the Burgundian School in the 15th century,
Dufay perfected his craft while working in Italy, developing an elegant style that bridged the transition from medieval to Renaissance.
杜菲在意大利工作期间完善了他的工艺，发展了一种优雅的风格，架起了从中世纪到文艺复兴的桥梁。 William Byrd is thought to have been born in London in about 1540, although this date is disputed.
What can be assumed is that he had a thorough musical education, and was most likely a chorister at London’s Chapel Royal, where he was a pupil of Thomas Tallis (see pp.20–21). In 1563, he was appointed organist and choirmaster at Lincoln Cathedral,
a post that he held for nine years. In Lincoln, he married Julian Birley—it was a happy marriage that lasted from 1568 to her death in the 1580s.
他担任了九年的职务。在林肯，他与朱利安·伯雷结婚。这是一段幸福的婚姻，从1568年持续到她在1580年去世。 Jerusalem Liberated. First performed at a private palace in Venice in 1624, Il combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda
is considered the first oratorio and included the first use of pizzicato—the strings imitating striking swords.Monteverdi took holy orders in 1632, but never ruled out a return to secular patronage. He seriously considered a post at the royal court of Poland and sought to attract the attention of the
Holy Roman Emperor in Vienna. However, in the end he remained at St. Mark’s for the rest of his days, constantly muttering about inadequate pay and worrying about an unpaid pension he was owed from Mantua.
Hailed by many as the greatest Baroque composer, Bach created music ranging from oratorios to intimate keyboard pieces. His composition combines mathematical complexity with profound humanity.
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