learning the BASICS
By making tools that either change their environment or help them to cope with it, human beings can survive where other animals cannot.
It took hundreds of thousands of years for people to make the basic inventions and discoveries that underpin what we now call technology.
人们花了几十万年的时间才做出了支撑我们现在所说的技术的基本发明和发现。 Introduction Three million years of creativity and curiosity have produced tens of thousands of inventions and discoveries.
Those that successfully met basic human needs—from the need to survive to the need to know—have played a big part in shaping our world.
那些成功地满足了从生存需求到知识需求等人类基本需求的人，在塑造我们的世界方面发挥了重要作用。 our world is very different from the world of our ancestors. Tens of thousands of inventions and discoveries have
transformed the way we do things and the way we think. An invention is something new, created by arranging things in some novel way. A discovery is a thing or
改变了我们做事和思考的方式。发明是一种新事物，通过以某种新颖的方式安排事物而创造出来。发现是一件事或一件事 It is often difficult to tell where invention ends and discovery begins, and neither happens overnight
principle that already existed, needing only to be found. But it is often difficult to tell where invention ends and discovery begins. Whatever they are, few inventions or discoveries are made overnight.
There is usually a period of preparation before they emerge. Even then, they take time to act. An invention may take years to displace existing methods. A discovery may take generations to change habits of thought.
When did it happen?
This is not a book of “firsts.” I have listed most inventions and discoveries under the date when they were first made public. But some dates relate to the beginning of something that only later became well known, or to a later stage of something that took time to influence people.
It can also be difficult to say exactly who invented or discovered something. Often, when the time is right, many people come up with the same idea. And making an idea work can be more important than simply thinking of it. At the top of each invention or discovery, I have named the people who I think contributed most to it.
Below, where possible, I have mentioned others who helped or attempted something similar. Some stories are too interesting to squeeze into a small space.
I have given these either a separate box or two whole pages. These longer stories show how complicated inventing or discovering can be and how it can change people’s lives. Other aspects of these lives appear at the foot of most pages in a timeline, which records events in the wider world
我给了他们一个单独的盒子或者两整页。这些较长的故事展示了发明或发现是多么复杂，以及它如何改变人们的生活。这些生命的其他方面出现在时间轴的大多数页面的底部，记录了更广阔世界中的事件 discoveries followed two main trends. Ancient ideas became modern science as measurement and mathematics improved on observation and argument, and the way things were made changed radically as scientific techniques displaced traditional crafts.
These trends continue at an ever greater rate today. You may notice that while the first section of the book covers nearly three million years, the last covers only fifty. Despite this rapid change, many inventions
国家地理英文教材练习册_DK原版书籍_剑桥牛津杂志桥梁书-悠悠乐英语资源 » DK smithsonian 1000 inventiongs discoveries new edition roger bridgman史密森1000个发明发现新版罗杰·布里奇曼