Perfect English Grammar: The Indispensable Guide to Excellent Writing and Speaking by Grant Barrett完美英语语法优秀写作口语指南

Perfect English Grammar: The Indispensable Guide to Excellent Writing and SpeakingCONTENTS
目录
Introduction
介绍
How to Use This Book
如何使用这本书
What Does This Book Mean by “Perfect Grammar”?
这本书所说的“完美语法”是什么意思?
1.0
GENERAL PRINCIPLES
一般原则
2.0
COMPOSITION
组成
A Few Words of Advice
几句忠告
Getting Started
入门
Write for the Correct Audience
为正确的读者写作
Opening Sentences
开场白
Paragraph Structure
段落结构
Paragraph Topic
段落主题
Body and Supporting Sentences
正文和辅助句
Number of Sentences in a Paragraph
段落中的句数
Conclusion
结论
Example Paragraphs
示例段落
The Five-Paragraph Essay
五段散文
Transitions and Coherence
过渡与连贯
Common Essay Mistakes to Avoid
避免常见的作文错误
Editing
编辑
3.0
PARTS OF SPEECH DEFINED
词类定义
4.0
SPELLING AND FORMATTING
拼写和格式
Improve Your Spelling
提高你的拼写
Common Spelling Errors
常见拼写错误
British Spelling versus American Spelling
英国拼法和美国拼法
Homophone Spelling Errors
同音拼写错误
Common Spelling Rules
常用拼写规则
I before E
我在E之前
Adding a Suffix and Dropping the E
添加后缀并删除E
Adding Suffixes to Words Ending in Y
向以Y结尾的单词添加后缀
Double the Final Consonant When Adding Suffixes
加后缀时把最后的辅音加倍
Affixes
词缀
Inflected Endings
屈折结尾
Derivational Suffixes
派生后缀
Infixes
中缀
Common Prefixes
常见的前缀
Common Suffixes
常用后缀
Contractions
收缩
It’s and It’d
是的,而且是的
Old-Fashioned Contractions
老式宫缩
Y’all
你们好
Let’s
我们走吧
Proper Nouns that End in S
以S结尾的专有名词
Common Possessive Mistakes to Avoid
避免常见的所有格错误
Its versus It’s
它和它的对比
Dates
日期
Date Abbreviations
日期缩写
Decades and Years
几十年
Time and the Clock
时间和时钟
Idiomatic Time Measurements
惯用时间测量
Numbers
数字
Partial Numbers
部分数字
Writing Numbers
写数字
Percentages as Numbers
以数字表示的百分比
Numbers that Start Sentences
开始句子的数字
Place Punctuation in Numbers
在数字中加标点符号
Saying Numbers as Words
把数字说成单词
Zero versus Oh
零对Oh
Saying Phone Numbers
说电话号码
Writing Amounts of Money
写金额
5.0
SENTENCE STRUCTURE
句子结构
Subjects and Predicates
主语和谓语
Subject-Verb Agreement
主谓一致
Objects
物体
Clauses
条款
Subordinators
从属连词
Phrases
短语
Noun Phrases
名词短语
Verb Phrases
短语动词
Prepositional Phrases
介词短语
Absolute Phrases
绝对短语
Complements
补充
6.0
6
VERBS
动词
Person

Number
数字
Aspect
方面
Tense
紧张
Past Tense
过去时
Present Tense
现在时态
Future Tense
将来时态
Mood
心情
Voice
声音
Conjugating Verbs
变位动词
Now
现在
In the Past
在过去
Continuous Action
连续动作
Action Verbs
行为动词
Linking Verbs
系动词
Auxiliary Verbs
助动词
Modal Verbs
情态动词
Multiple Modals
多情态动词
Irregular Verb Inflections
不规则动词屈折
Lay versus Lie
谎言对谎言
Gotten
得到
Brung
布伦
Writing with Consistent Tenses
用一致时态写作
Choosing Your Tense
选择你的时态
Phrasal Verbs
短语动词
7.0
DETERMINERS
限定词
8.0
NOUNS
名词
Compound Nouns
复合名词
Possessives
所有格
Collective Nouns
集合名词
Fun Collective Nouns
有趣的集体名词
Count Nouns and Non-Count Nouns
可数名词与不可数名词
Definite and Indefinite Articles with Nouns
带名词的定冠词和不定冠词
An Historic versus A Historic
历史与历史
Plurals
复数
Plurals of Some Greek and Latin Words
一些希腊语和拉丁语单词的复数形式
Words Ending in O
以O结尾的词
Words with No Singular or No Plural
没有单数或复数的词
Words that Look Plural But Aren’t
看起来是复数但不是复数的词
Apostrophes Don’t Make Words Plural
撇号不能使单词复数
Plurals of Some Compound Nouns
一些复合名词的复数形式
Common Problems with Plurals
复数的常见问题
Plural of Data
数据的复数形式
Proper Nouns
专有名词
Definite Article and Proper Nouns
定冠词与专有名词
Common Problems with Proper Nouns
专有名词常见问题
Nouns into Verbs
名词变成动词
9.0
ABBREVIATIONS
缩写
Initialisms
初始值
Acronyms
缩略语
Shortening and Clipping
缩短和剪裁
Blends and Portmanteaus
混合酒和葡萄酒
Pluralizing Acronyms and Initialisms
复数首字母缩略词和首字母缩略词
10.0
PRONOUNS
代词
Subject Pronouns
人称代词
Object Pronouns
宾格代词
Possessive Adjectives
所有格形容詞
Possessive Pronouns
所有格代词
Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns
反身代词和强化代词
Reflexive Pronouns
反身代词
Intensive Pronouns
强化代词
Relative Pronouns
关系代词
Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives
指示代词和形容词
Interrogative Pronouns
疑问代词
Whom versus Who
谁对谁
Subject Pronouns versus Object Pronouns in Some Situations
在某些情况下主语代词与宾语代词的对比
Pronouns and Indeterminate Gender
代词与不确定性别
Weather It, Expletive It, and the Dummy Subject
天气,咒骂,和虚拟的主题
11.0
ADJECTIVES
形容词
Adjective Order
形容词顺序
Comparative and Superlative Adjectives
比较级和最高级形容词
Irregular Comparatives and Superlatives
不规则比较级和最高级
Proper Adjectives
恰当形容词
Compound Adjectives
复合形容词
Indefinite Adjectives
不定形容词
12.0
ADVERBS
副词
Conjunctive Adverbs
连词副词
Sentence Adverbs
句子副词
13.0
PREPOSITIONS
介词
Common Prepositions
常用介词
14.0
CONJUNCTIONS
连词
Coordinating Conjunctions
并列连词
Correlative Conjunctions
相关连词
Subordinating Conjunctions
从属连词
15.0
INTERJECTIONS
感叹词
Common Interjections
常用感叹词
16.0
PUNCTUATION
标点符号
Period
期间
Comma
逗号
Commas and Independent Clauses
逗号和独立子句
Commas and Introductory Clauses
逗号和介绍性从句
Commas and Interjections
逗号和感叹词
Commas and Vocative Uses
逗号和呼语用法
Commas and Nonessential Ideas
逗号和非基本概念
Commas and Essential Ideas
逗号和基本概念
Commas and Series
逗号和系列
Commas and Adjectives
逗号和形容词
Commas and Descriptions
逗号和说明
Commas that Set Off Names and Dates
用逗号表示姓名和日期
Commas and Dialog
逗号和对话框
Common Mistakes with Commas
带逗号的常见错误
Question Mark
问号
Exclamation Mark
感叹号
Colon
结肠
Semicolon
分号
Hyphen
连字符
Dash
破折号
En Dash
破折号
Em Dash
Em短划线
Apostrophe
撇号
Quotation Marks
引号
Parentheses and Brackets
括号和方括号
17.0
MORE USAGE AND STYLE
更多用法和样式
Avoiding Adverbs
避免副词
Bored Of versus Bored By versus Bored With
厌倦
Can versus May
五月对五月
Capital Letters
大写字母
Clichés
陈词滥调és
Conjunctions at the Beginning of a Sentence
句首连词
Dangling Modifiers
悬垂修饰语
Double Negatives
双重否定
Funner and Funnest
风趣
Go Missing
失踪
Misplaced Modifiers
修饰语错位
On Accident versus By Accident
论偶然与偶然
Or and Nor
或与或
Repetition
重复
Shall versus Will
应与将
Spaces after a Period
句点后的空格
That versus Which
那个和哪个
There Is versus There Are
有对有
Well versus Good
好还是好
Wordiness
罗嗦
Y’all, You Guys, and Genderless Guy
你们,伙计们,还有无性别的家伙

speak English as a second

INTRODUCTION
导言
grew up in rural Missouri. My father was a cop. My mother was an Avon
在密苏里州的农村长大。我父亲是个警察。我妈妈是个雅芳
lady. They raised five kids to be clean, be quiet, and be good (with mixed
女士。他们抚养了五个孩子,要干净、安静、好(混合在一起)
results for “quiet” and “good”). Education was mostly left to the schools.
“安静”和“好”的结果。教育主要留给学校。
There were no tutors, no college prep, no books on how to help children
没有导师,没有大学预科,也没有关于如何帮助孩子的书
succeed at life. It worked out for me somehow: I became a constant reader,
在生活中成功。不知怎么地,我终于明白了:我成了一个不断的读者,
and with the help of libraries, I added to my learning.
在图书馆的帮助下,我把学习内容增加了。
But nobody emphasized for me that writing and speaking well were
但没有人强调说,写作和说话都很好
important until I was in my twenties. In grade school and high school—
重要的是直到我二十几岁。小学和高中-
where I felt I excelled at composition and literature analysis—everything
我觉得自己擅长作文和文学分析
seemed fine. It was about overall literacy, the broad strokes of language. I
看上去不错。它是关于整体识字,语言的广泛笔触。我
listened, I did the work, and I passed the tests.
听着,我做了工作,我通过了考试。
But in college, that wasn’t enough. Others noticed I used too many
但在大学里,这还不够。其他人注意到我用了太多
commas. Professors left embarrassing remarks about my writing on my
逗号。教授们对我的写作留下了尴尬的评论
essays. The student newspaper editors cut my wordiness to tight journalistic
文章。学生报编辑把我的措辞删减为新闻从紧
paragraphs that I couldn’t seem to come up with on my own.
我似乎自己也没法想出的段落。
Clearly, there was a higher level of attention I could pay to my writing
显然,我对写作的关注程度更高
and speaking. So, I set out to fix my language.
我说。所以,我开始修好我的语言。
There was so much I didn’t know.
我不知道的事情太多了。
It turned out to be so interesting I dived in deep and eventually became
结果结果很有趣,我潜入深渊,最终变成
a lexicographer—someone who compiles and edits dictionaries—especially
词典编纂者编纂和编辑词典的人,尤指
dictionaries for people learning English through classwork rather than by
为人们通过课堂学习英语而不是通过
being born into it.
出生在它里面。
Later, I became the co-host of a public radio show about words and
后来,我成为了一个关于单词和
language now heard by more than 500,000 people a week around the world.
现在全世界有超过50万人听到这种语言。
Now, I give speeches, I talk to the press about language (especially about
现在,我发表演讲,我和媒体谈论语言(特别是关于
new words and slang), and, as you can see, I write books about it. I want
新词和俚语),正如你所见,我写了有关它的书。我想要
others to see what I see: with a little bit of help, anyone can improve their
别人看我看到了什么:只要有一点帮助,任何人都可以提高他们的水平
communication.
沟通。

完美英语语法优秀写作口语Since you’re reading this, there’s a good chance you or someone you
既然你在读这篇文章,很有可能是你或你认识的人
know needs help with their language. To help as many people as possible,
他们的语言需要帮助。帮助尽可能多的人,
I’ve written this book to be useful for a wide range of readers, writers, and
我写这本书是为了对广大读者、作家和读者有用
learners: junior high, high school, and college students; graduate students
学习者:初中、高中、大学生;研究生
who speak English as a second (or even third) language; or business
把英语作为第二(甚至第三)语言的人;还是生意
professionals and community leaders who need a refresher on grammar
需要复习语法的专业人士和社区领袖
points they last thought about decades ago.
他们最后一次想到的是几十年前。
This book does not cover all of English grammar. Instead, it contains
这本书没有涵盖所有的英语语法。相反,它包含
frequently asked questions I’ve encountered from writers, speechmakers,
我经常遇到作家,演讲人,
and language learners of all ages and kinds. It also includes facts that were
以及各种年龄和种类的语言学习者。它还包括
eye-openers for me when I first started on my journey of communicating
当我第一次开始我的沟通之旅时,我大开眼界
better. I hope this book will be your trusted companion as you express all
更好。我希望这本书将是你值得信赖的同伴,因为你表达所有
that you have to say.
你不得不说。
HOW TO USE THIS BOOK
如何使用这本书
first, browse the book to familiarize yourself with its contents. Then,
首先,浏览这本书以熟悉它的内容。那么,
when questions come up, use the table of contents to find answers. Each
当出现问题时,用目录找出答案。每个
entry has an index number. Related subjects appear near each other or are
条目有索引号。相关主题出现在彼此附近或
mentioned in a cross-reference like this: see section 8.0, Nouns.
在这样的交叉引用中提到:见第8.0节,名词。
I know many readers like to dip and skim for pleasure, so I’ve written
我知道许多读者喜欢为了乐趣而浏览,所以我写了
this book so you can open to any page, read for a few minutes, and go away
这本书,你可以打开任何一页,读几分钟,然后走开
with a little nugget of information. Of course, y  ou can read the whole thing
一点点信息。当然,你能看懂整件事
straight through, too, if that’s your style. I don’t judge.
如果这是你的风格的话,也可以直截了当。我不判断。
To make everything easier to understand, I’ve included example
为了让每件事都更容易理解,我加入了一个例子
sentences, lists and charts, and a glossary explaining some of the
句子、列表和图表,以及解释
specialized language of grammar and linguistics.
语法和语言学的专门语言。
These guidelines should help you make the most of this book as you work
这些指南应该能帮助你在工作中充分利用这本书
toward becoming a better writer.
成为一个更好的作家。
Consistency matters. When you make a style choice, stick with it
一致性很重要。当你选择一种风格时,要坚持下去
throughout your project. When you choose a tense (see section
在整个项目中。当你选择时态时(参见第节)
6.4), person (see section 6.1), or tone, think twice before
6.4)、人(见第6.1节)或语气,请三思而后行
switching to a new one.
换一个新的。
English offers many options. There may be more than one
英语有很多选择。可能不止一个
acceptable choice. There isn’t necessarily just one answer for
可接受的选择。不一定只有一个答案
every language dilemma.
每一个语言难题。
Words can have more than one meaning and more than one
单词可以有不止一个意思,也可以有不止一个
use. Be wary.
使用。小心点。
English is illogical in places. Trying to make it logical is a
英语有些地方不合逻辑。试图使它合乎逻辑是一个挑战
mistake. Instead, bend to it.
错误。相反,你要向它屈服。
There is a variety of linguistic terms for the same features of
对于同一事物的特征,有各种各样的语言术语
English. It is more important to understand the concepts than to
英语。理解这些概念比理解它们更重要
know all the terms.
知道所有的条件。
Write for your audience (see section 2.2.1) rather than for
为你的读者而写(见2.2.1节),而不是为你的读者而写
yourself. Write appropriately for the situation.
你自己。根据情况适当地写。
Write to be understood. Don’t let anyone’s rules get in the way of
写信是为了让别人理解。别让任何人的规矩妨碍了你
good communication.
良好的沟通。
Avoid doing things differently than everyone else. It can distract
避免做与别人不同的事情。它可以分散注意力
from your message. This especially applies to beginning or
从你的留言里。这尤其适用于开始或结束
nonfluent writers, as they often reach beyond their abilities.
不流利的作家,因为他们经常超越自己的能力。
Avoid the urge to put writerly tricks to work unless they come
除非他们来了,否则要避免把写得花枝招展的伎俩付诸实施的冲动
naturally to you. Simple does it. Before literary writers could do
对你来说很自然。简单就是这样。在文学作家之前
clever things with their work, they had to understand the ordinary
聪明的东西配合他们的工作,他们要懂得平凡
ways of language. Basic language rules underlie everything they
语言的方式。基本的语言规则是它们的基础
write.
写。
Use a thesaurus only to remind yourself of words you already
使用同义词表只是为了提醒自己你已经说过的单词
know. Don’t use a thesaurus to find new words for your writing.
我知道。不要用同义词表为你的写作找生词。
You are very likely to misuse new words, because a thesaurus
你很可能误用新单词,因为一本词典
does not always indicate which words are appropriate for which
并不总是指明哪些词适合哪些词
contexts.
上下文。
Throughout this book, I recommend consulting a dictionary.
在这本书中,我建议你查阅字典。
Consider using two dictionaries from different publishers. Each
考虑使用来自不同出版商的两本词典。每个
dictionary has its own strengths. Be sure to use dictionaries from
词典有它自己的长处。一定要使用词典
well-known publishers, as off-brand dictionaries tend to be out of-date and less thorough. See my recommendations in the
知名出版商,如非品牌词典往往被淘汰￾过时而且不够彻底。请参阅
Further Reading section (here).
进一步阅读部分(这里)。
Use the style guide preferred by your organization, school,
使用你的组织、学校和,
teacher, or industry and stick with it. Well-known style guides
老师,还是勤奋,坚持下去。著名风格指南
sometimes disagree on specifics. In this book, I give guidelines
有时在细节上有分歧。在这本书中,我给出了一些指导方针
that will, generally, work for everyday writing for school and
一般来说,这将适用于学校和学校的日常写作
work.
工作。
Use the table of contents and the glossary. This is not only a
使用目录和词汇表。这不仅仅是一个
browsable book, but also one that can be used for easy lookups.
可浏览的书,但也可以用来方便查找。

Learn to communicate exactly what you mean with this writing and speaking guide.
学会用这本写作和口语指南准确地表达你的意思。
From conjugating verbs to mastering punctuation to polishing your speaking skills, Perfect English Grammar makes it easier than ever to improve your grasp of grammar. Language learners of all levels can turn to this easy-to-navigate grammar guide again and again for quick and authoritative information for improving everyday communication.
从修饰动词到掌握标点符号再到提高你的口语能力, 完美英语语法 使你比以往更容易掌握语法。各级语言学习者可以一次又一次地阅读这本易于掌握的语法指南,以获得快速而权威的信息,从而改善日常交流。
Never Be Wrong: Catchy examples help you remember core grammar rules
永远不要犯错: 上口的例子可以帮助你记住核心语法规则
Sharpen Your Style: Composition guidelines let you express yourself fully
锐化你的风格: 作文指导让你充分表达自己
Look It Up: Seamless navigation makes it easy to find answers quickly
查一下: 无缝导航使快速查找答案变得容易
Geek Out: Explore the tricky questions with Grant Barrett’s help
极客: 在格兰特·巴雷特的帮助下探索棘手的问题
Perfect English Grammar helps you clearly say what you want to say―and the best way to say it.
完美英语语法 帮助你清楚地说出你想说的话——以及最好的表达方式。

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